The centrifugal pump is a type of hydraulic pump (or turbomachine) that processes the working fluid in a constant volume over time through always-open channels, typically with a stationary flow (hence, no internal valves are needed).
When the impeller (rotating part) is set in motion, it imparts rotation to the fluid (kinetic energy) and creates a suction in the intake duct. This suction, along with the force of atmospheric pressure, draws the liquid into the centrifugal pump.
Inside the pump, the fluid follows a path from the center of the impeller to its periphery, driven by centrifugal forces. It passes through channels with increasing cross-sections formed by curved blades. During this passage, part of the kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy.
Upon exiting the impeller, the fluid enters the volute, which also has an increasing cross-section. Here, the remaining kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy, increasing the pump's head (or pressure capability). The more pressure energy transferred to the fluid, the higher the pump's head, and the farther the working fluid can be sent.
The operating range of a centrifugal pump is strictly limited to its characteristic curve. This curve defines the relationship between the head, flow rate, and power consumption under various operating conditions.