The centrifugal pump is a hydraulic pump (turbomachine) that processes the working fluid in a constant volume over time through always open channels, with typically stationary flow (thus no valves are needed inside).
When the impeller is rotated, it also imparts rotation to the fluid (kinetic energy) and a depression in the suction conduit which, along with the thrust of atmospheric pressure, sucks the liquid into the centrifugal pump.
The fluid follows a path from the center of the impeller to its periphery due to the action of centrifugal forces and passes through the channels with increasing cross-section formed by curved blades. Already in this path, part of the kinetic energy is transformed into pressure energy.
Exiting the impeller, the fluid enters the volute, which is also made with an increasing cross-section, and the remaining amount of kinetic energy is transformed into pressure energy that increases the head. The more pressure energy transferred to the fluid, and thus the pump's head, the farther the working fluid can be sent.
The operating range of the centrifugal pump is strictly limited to its characteristic curve.